Commercial Travellers’ Schools.

The Commercial Travellers’ Schools was a charity set up in the mid-1840’s to establish schools to look after for children of commercial travellers, such as those who had passed away or could not support for their upbringing. The idea came from a small school for the orphans of commercial travellers that had been founded by John Robert Cuffley in 1845 at Wanstead in Essex. At a special general meeting in December 1846 it was decided that the full title of the charity was to be ‘The Commercial Travellers’ Schools for Orphans and Necessitous Children‘ and its purpose was ‘the clothing, maintenance, and education of the destitute orphans of deceased, and the children of necessitous, commercial travellers of the United Kingdom, from the age of seven years to the age of fourteen years, and to be open to the children of every religious denomination‘ (Sun, 12 December 1846).

One of the founders of the charity was George Moore (1806 – 1876). Moore was a successful commercial traveller himself, having been involved in the lace industry. He quit the business to concentrate on philanthropic activities and was the treasurer of the Commercial Travellers’ Schools charity for at least the first 25 years of its existence.

On 2 August 1847 the organisation opened a large mansion in Wanstead, east London. However the home initially could only accommodate twenty children at any one time and plans were made for a larger and more permanent building. The charity soon attracted celebrity patronage and a large amount of donations in its first few years and within ten years had raised enough to build a large boarding school at Pinner. Prince Albert laid the foundation stone of the school on 20 July 1853, and was also present at the opening ceremony on 27 October 1855. The school at Pinner survived until 1967, with both it and the Wanstead home having helped over 5,000 children.

One of the main methods of fund-raising for charitable institutions in the nineteenth century was the holding of celebratory dinners. The events, usually held annually, offered the opportunity of presenting the aims and objectives of that charity to the audience as well as highlighting progress achieved and success stories. The functions were usually held in one of the leading hospitality venues, capable of seating and feeding an audience that usually ran into the hundreds. The institution would usually invite a well-known figure, often from the political world, to preside at the event, with a view that this might attract other notable and well-connected people. The Commercial Travellers’ Schools held its first such anniversary dinner in December 1847, a year after rules of the organisation were set down at a special general meeting. The first dinner was held at the London Tavern, a well known London venue, with the Lord Mayor being invited to preside. In 1854, Charles Dickens was invited to preside at that years dinner, which he accepted. The following are speeches Dickens made on that occasion:

I THINK it may be assumed that most of us here present know something about travelling. I do not mean in distant regions or foreign countries, although I dare say some of us have had experience in that way, but at home, and within the limits of the United Kingdom. I dare say most of us have had experience of the extinct “fast coaches,” the “Wonders,” “Taglionis,” and “Tallyhos,” of other days. I daresay most of us remember certain modest postchaises, dragging us down interminable roads, through slush and mud, to little country towns with no visible population, except half-a-dozen men in smock-frocks, half-a-dozen women with umbrellas and pattens, and a washed-out dog or so shivering under the gables, to complete the desolate picture. We can all discourse, I dare say, if so minded, about our recollections of the “Talbot,” the “Queen’s Head,” or the “Lion” of those days. We have all been to that room on the ground floor on one side of the old inn yard, not quite free from a certain fragrant smell of tobacco, where the cruets on the sideboard were usually absorbed by the skirts of the box-coats that hung from the wall; where awkward servants waylaid us at every turn, like so many human man-traps; where county members, framed and glazed, were eternally presenting that petition which, somehow or other, had made their glory in the county, although nothing else had ever come of it. Where the books in the windows always wanted the first, last, and middle leaves, and where the one man was always arriving at some unusual hour in the night, and requiring his breakfast at a similarly singular period of the day. I have no doubt we could all be very eloquent on the comforts of our favourite hotel, wherever it was – its beds, its stables, its vast amount of posting, its excellent cheese, its head waiter, its capital dishes, its pigeon-pies, or its 1820 port. Or possibly we could recall our chaste and innocent admiration of its landlady, or our fraternal regard for its handsome chambermaid. A celebrated domestic critic once writing of a famous actress, renowned for her virtue and beauty, gave her the character of being an “eminently gatherable-to-one’s-arms sort of person.” Perhaps some one amongst us has borne a somewhat similar tribute to the mental charms of the fair deities who presided at our hotels.

With the travelling characteristics of later times, we are all, no doubt, equally familiar. We know all about that station to which we must take our ticket, although we never get there; and the other one at which we arrive after dark, certain to find it half a mile from the town, where the old road is sure to have been abolished, and the new road is going to be made – where the old neighbourhood has been tumbled down, and the new one is not half built up. We know all about that party on the platform who, with the best intentions, can do nothing for our luggage except pitch it into all sorts of unattainable places. We know all about that short omnibus, in which one is to be doubled up, to the imminent danger of the crown of one’s hat; and about that fly, whose leading peculiarity is never to be there when it is wanted. We know, too, how instantaneously the lights of the station disappear when the train starts, and about that grope to the new Railway Hotel, which will be an excellent house when the customers come, but which at present has nothing to offer but a liberal allowance of damp mortar and new lime.

I record these little incidents of home travel mainly with the object of increasing your interest in the purpose of this night’s assemblage. Every traveller has a home of his own, and he learns to appreciate it the more from his wandering. If he has no home, he learns the same lesson unselfishly by turning to the homes of other men. He may have his experiences of cheerful and exciting pleasures abroad; but home is the best, after all, and its pleasures are the most heartily and enduringly prized. Therefore, ladies and gentlemen, every one must be prepared to learn that commercial travellers, as a body, know how to prize those domestic relations from which their pursuits so frequently sever them; for no one could possibly invent a more delightful or more convincing testimony to the fact than they themselves have offered in founding and maintaining a school for the children of deceased or unfortunate members of their own body; those children who now appeal to you in mute but eloquent terms from the gallery.

It is to support that school, founded with such high and friendly objects, so very honourable to your calling, and so useful in its solid and practical results, that we are here to-night. It is to roof that building which is to shelter the children of your deceased friends with one crowning ornament, the best that any building can have, namely, a receipt stamp for the full amount of the cost. It is for this that your active sympathy is appealed to, for the completion of your own good work. You know how to put your hands to the plough in earnest as well as any men in existence, for this little book informs me that you raised last year no less a sum than 8000 pounds, and while fully half of that sum consisted of new donations to the building fund, I find that the regular revenue of the charity has only suffered to the extent of 30 pounds. After this, I most earnestly and sincerely say that were we all authors together, I might boast, if in my profession were exhibited the same unity and steadfastness I find in yours.

I will not urge on you the casualties of a life of travel, or the vicissitudes of business, or the claims fostered by that bond of brotherhood which ought always to exist amongst men who are united in a common pursuit. You have already recognized those claims so nobly, that I will not presume to lay them before you in any further detail. Suffice it to say that I do not think it is in your nature to do things by halves. I do not think you could do so if you tried, and I have a moral certainty that you never will try. To those gentlemen present who are not members of the travellers’ body, I will say in the words of the French proverb, “Heaven helps those who help themselves.” The Commercial Travellers having helped themselves so gallantly, it is clear that the visitors who come as a sort of celestial representatives ought to bring that aid in their pockets which the precept teaches us to expect from them. With these few remarks, I beg to give you as a toast, “Success to the Commercial Travellers’ School.”

In proposing the health of the Army in the Crimea, Mr. Dickens said:-

IT does not require any extraordinary sagacity in a commercial assembly to appreciate the dire evils of war. The great interests of trade enfeebled by it, the enterprise of better times paralysed by it, all the peaceful arts bent down before it, too palpably indicate its character and results, so that far less practical intelligence than that by which I am surrounded would be sufficient to appreciate the horrors of war. But there are seasons when the evils of peace, though not so acutely felt, are immeasurably greater, and when a powerful nation, by admitting the right of any autocrat to do wrong, sows by such complicity the seeds of its own ruin, and overshadows itself in time to come with that fatal influence which great and ambitious powers are sure to exercise over their weaker neighbours.

Therefore it is, ladies and gentlemen, that the tree has not its root in English ground from which the yard wand can be made that will measure – the mine has not its place in English soil that will supply the material of a pair of scales to weigh the influence that may be at stake in the war in which we are now straining all our energies. That war is, at any time and in any shape, a most dreadful and deplorable calamity, we need no proverb to tell us; but it is just because it is such a calamity, and because that calamity must not for ever be impending over us at the fancy of one man against all mankind, that we must not allow that man to darken from our view the figures of peace and justice between whom and us he now interposes.

Ladies and gentlemen, if ever there were a time when the true spirits of two countries were really fighting in the cause of human advancement and freedom – no matter what diplomatic notes or other nameless botherations, from number one to one hundred thousand and one, may have preceded their taking the field – if ever there were a time when noble hearts were deserving well of mankind by exposing themselves to the obedient bayonets of a rash and barbarian tyrant, it is now, when the faithful children of England and France are fighting so bravely in the Crimea. Those faithful children are the admiration and wonder of the world, so gallantly are they discharging their duty; and therefore I propose to an assembly, emphatically representing the interests and arts of peace, to drink the health of the Allied Armies of England and France, with all possible honours.

In proposing the health of the Treasurer, Mr. Dickens said:-

If the President of this Institution had been here, I should possibly have made one of the best speeches you ever heard; but as he is not here, I shall turn to the next toast on my list:- “The health of your worthy Treasurer, Mr. George Moore,” a name which is a synonym for integrity, enterprise, public spirit, and benevolence. He is one of the most zealous officers I ever saw in my life; he appears to me to have been doing nothing during the last week but rushing into and out of railway-carriages, and making eloquent speeches at all sorts of public dinners in favour of this charity. Last evening he was at Manchester, and this evening he comes here, sacrificing his time and convenience, and exhausting in the meantime the contents of two vast leaden inkstands and no end of pens, with the energy of fifty bankers’ clerks rolled into one. But I clearly foresee that the Treasurer will have so much to do to-night, such gratifying sums to acknowledge and such large lines of figures to write in his books, that I feel the greatest consideration I can show him is to propose his health without further observation, leaving him to address you in his own behalf. I propose to you, therefore, the health of Mr. George Moore, the Treasurer of this charity, and I need hardly add that it is one which is to be drunk with all the honours.

Later in the evening, Mr. Dickens rose and said:-

So many travellers have been going up Mont Blanc lately, both in fact and in fiction, that I have heard recently of a proposal for the establishment of a Company to employ Sir Joseph Paxton to take it down. Only one of those travellers, however, has been enabled to bring Mont Blanc to Piccadilly, and, by his own ability and good humour, so to thaw its eternal ice and snow, as that the most timid lady may ascend it twice a-day, “during the holidays,” without the smallest danger or fatigue. Mr. Albert Smith, who is present amongst us to-night, is undoubtedly “a traveller.” I do not know whether he takes many orders, but this I can testify, on behalf of the children of his friends, that he gives them in the most liberal manner.

We have also amongst us my friend Mr. Peter Cunningham, who is also a traveller, not only in right of his able edition of Goldsmith’s “Traveller,” but in right of his admirable Handbook, which proves him to be a traveller in the right spirit through all the labyrinths of London. We have also amongst us my friend Horace Mayhew, very well known also for his books, but especially for his genuine admiration of the company at that end of the room [POINTING TO THE LADIES GALLERY], and who, whenever the fair sex is mentioned, will be found to have the liveliest personal interest in the conversation.

Ladies and gentlemen, I am about to propose to you the health of these three distinguished visitors. They are all admirable speakers, but Mr. Albert Smith has confessed to me, that on fairly balancing his own merits as a speaker and a singer, he rather thinks he excels in the latter art. I have, therefore, yielded to his estimate of himself, and I have now the pleasure of informing you that he will lead off the speeches of the other two gentlemen with a song. Mr. Albert Smith has just said to me in an earnest tone of voice, “What song would you recommend?” and I replied, “Galignani’s Messenger.” Ladies and gentlemen, I therefore beg to propose the health of Messrs. Albert Smith, Peter Cunningham, and Horace Mayhew, and call on the first-named gentleman for a song.


The following are some contemporary newspaper reports of the event:

COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS’ SCHOOLS.-The annual festival in aid of the funds of this excellent institution took place on Saturday evening at the London Tavern. Mr. Charles Dickens presided, and was supported by several other literary gentlemen, including Mr. Peter Cunningham, Mr. Horace Mayhew, and Mr. Albert Smith. The presence of these gentlemen appeared to have been a great attraction to the commercial friends of the institution, for nearly 240 guests – double the anticipated number – sat down to dinner. Not withstanding this unexpected increase in the number of visitors, the resources of the London Tavern fortunately proved equal to the emergency, and afforded to no one the least opportunity for complaint.. After dinner, the usual loyal toasts having been drunk, the chairman proposed, “Prosperity to the Commercial Travellers’ Schools” in a very humourous speech, in the course of which he observed that no more convincing proof could be found of the regard of commercial travellers for those domestic relations from which their pursuits so frequently severed them, than the fact that they had founded and maintained an institution such as that the interests of which they were assembled to advance. Mr. Moore, the treasurer, whose exertions on behalf of the institution were specially alluded to by the chairman, gave an account of the funds. He stated that the building fund already reached 16,500l., and 5,000l., more would complete it. To obtain that sum he invited the generous co-operation of all present. The children at present in the school, 152 in number, were then introduced, and their healthy and contented appearance bore testimony to the attention paid to their personal comforts. The healths of the literary visitors were then drunk, for which Mr. H. Mayhew and Mr. Peter Cunningham (who described himself as a “literary bagman”) returned thanks. Mr. Albert Smith acknowledged the compliment paid to him by singing his famous song, ” Galignani’s Messenger,’ in preference to making a speech. The results of the evening’s subscription were announced by the secretay to amount to about 800l., including 5l. from the chairman, Mr. A Smith, 5l., &c.

The Times. Monday, January 1 1855.